Bringing Revolutionary Athens to life
An interactive digital application for mobile phones or tablets tours the area around the Acropolis and becomes the ‘meeting point’ with unknown historical figures who found themselves under siege in the Acropolis between October 1826 and May 1827.

What life was like for the besieged in the ten months of the Ottomans’ siege?

Did they have adequate provisions for their survival?

How was their daily life, in terms of war or otherwise?

What was the women and children’s experience of the siege?

The historical context
The siege of the Acropolis by Ottoman General Kioutachis (August 1826 – May 1827) is one of the relatively unknown events of the last year of the War of Independence. The Greeks who sought refuge in the “castle”, as Athenians called the rock already since Byzantine times, were local fighters and inhabitants, the elders of Athens, foreign soldiers as well as women and children. The siege was marked by several skirmishes, while both sides committed atrocities.

The application
The digital application comprises two main settings which take place on the north and south sides of the Acropolis. Specifically, in the area of the Clepsydra water spring (north), and the so-called Serpentze site, today’s Odeon of Herodes Atticus (south), which is shown with the landfills of that time (i.e., as it was before the archaeological excavations). The stories of the app unfold on these two simulated sites.
Documentation and methodology
Historical documentation was based on a multitude of sources that give insights into behaviours, attires, the ways of communication between the genders, the diseases that prevailed among the population, and much else.

This was followed by a selection of certain ‘fictional’ figures, which represent various genders and social or ethnic groups—for instance, the Albanian “Kyriaki” from Menidi, the educated Athenian woman “Aspasia”, the Ottoman “Murat” from Athens, an Albanian messenger, and so on.

The characters are in the form of avatars, whose look was based on extensive bibliographical and archival research. The language they speak was shaped so as to be intelligible today yet still conveying a feeling of its time in history.

The visualisation of the setting in which the scenes take place was meant to ensure consistency with the historical reality of that time rather than as a realistically rendered simulation.



The design of the virtual characters (avatars)
remains as close as possible to the representation of the faces,
persons, bodies and clothing of the period as found in the sources.

In order to achieve an accurate representation of the clothing of the avatars, extensive research has been carried out on the rich visual material of the period (paintings, engravings, prints, etchings, etc.).

At the same time, a secondary study was carried out
on the anthropological types
of the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean
in order to obtain as accurate a representation as possible of the
of the facial and
and body of the characters.
The visualisation of the space in which the scenes unfold is not meant to produce a realistic simulation but rather to arrive at a reconstruction that will demonstrate to present-day viewers how different the area around the Acropolis was in 1827.

We approach the virtual space more as a theatrical stage. Thus, the idea behind the digital design is to convey a theatrical image and impression.

Extract from the application

Language and communication in Athens in the early 19th century

Λέξεις που μας θυμίζουν ιδιωματισμούς,
γνώριμες ή και τελείως άγνωστες σήμερα,
ήταν, 200 χρόνια πριν, μέρος της καθομιλουμένης στην Αθήνα,
όπως μαρτυρούν οι πηγές.

Η συλλογή που ακολουθεί
σταχυολογεί ελάχιστο μέρος αυτού του τοπικού ιδιώματος,
που παράγεται σε μια κοινωνία συνύπαρξης
διαφορετικών κοινωνικών, εθνοτικών και θρησκευτικών ομάδων.
Σε κάποιες λέξεις ή φράσεις η εξήγηση είναι απαραίτητη σήμερα,
σε άλλες πάλι όχι…


[All works in this section are in Greek; a translation of the title is provided in brackets]
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  • Ainian, D. (1903). Η βιογραφία του στρατηγού Γεώργιου Καραϊσκάκη. Αθήνα: Τυπογραφείο Γ.Σ. Βλαστού. [The biography of general Georgios Karaiskakis]
  • Beaton, R. (2021). Η Ελληνική Επανάσταση του 1821 και η παγκόσμια σημασία της. Αθήνα: Αιώρα. [The Greek Revolution of 1821 and its global significance]
  • Berberi, Α. (2017). Μορφολογική Προσαρμογή και Λεξικοσημασιολογικός δανεισμός των Τουρκικών Δανείων στα Αρχεία του Αλή Πασά. Διπλωματική εργασία. Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης. [Morphological adjustment and lexical-semantic lending of Turkish loans in the Ali Pasha archives]
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  • Gara, Ε., & Tzedopoulos, G. (2015). Χριστιανοί και μουσουλμάνοι στην οθωμανική αυτοκρατορία [Προπτυχιακό εγχειρίδιο]. Κάλλιπος, Ανοικτές Ακαδημαϊκές Εκδόσεις.[Christians and Muslims in the Ottoman Empire]
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  • Kremmydas, V. (2016). Η ελληνική επανάσταση του 1821. Τεκμήρια αναψηλαφήσεις, ερμηνείες. Αθήνα: Gutenberg. [The Greek Revolution of 1821; revisiting and interpreting the evidence]
  • Kyriazis, D. K. (2014). Πολιτιστική κληρονομιά του Αλβανικού λαού. Το λεξικογραφικό έργο του Ευθυμίου Μήτκου. Τίρανα: Αλβανική Ακαδημία Επιστημών. [The cultural heritage of the Albanian people; the lexicography of Efthymios Mitkos]
  • Laiou, S., & Sariyannis, Μ. (2019). Οθωμανικές αφηγήσεις για την ελληνική επανάσταση. Αθήνα. [Ottoman accounts of the Greek revolution]
  • Makriyannis, S. (2014). Απομνημονεύματα. Αθήνα: Βιβλιοπωλείον της Εστίας. [Memoirs]
  • Papadopoulos, Κ. (1837). Ανασκευή των εις την ιστορίαν των Αθηνών αναφερομένων περί του Στρατηγού Οδυσσέως Ανδρούτσου και του Συνταγματάρχου Καρόλου Φαβιέρου. Αθήνα: Τυπογραφία Πέτρου Μαντζαράκη. [Refuting the references to general Odysseas Androutsos and colonel Charles Fabvier in the history of Athens]
  • Papastamatiou, D. & Kotzageorgis, F. (2015).Ιστορία του νέου ελληνισμού κατά τη διάρκεια της οθωμανικής πολιτικής κυριαρχίας [Προπτυχιακό εγχειρίδιο]. Κάλλιπος, Ανοικτές Ακαδημαϊκές Εκδόσεις. [History of modern Greeks during the Ottoman political domination]
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  • Stefanopoulos, S. (1864). Απομνημονεύματα τινά της Επαναστάσεως του 1821. Τρίπολη: Τύποις της Φωνής των Επαρχιών. [Some memoirs from the Revolution of 1821]
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Publications / Conferences
Stoyannides, Y., Gazi, A., Marmaras, I., Ziff, S., Venierri, F., Scoulidas, Y., Giannakis, Th. A digital application on the Revolution as a contribution to the field of public history. In The bicentenary of the Greek Revolution as a field of digital public history. Athens: Institute of Historical Studies / National Research Foundation (In Greek; in print).

Gazi, A., Giannakis, T., Marmaras, I., Scoulidas, Y., Stoyannides, Y., Venieri, F., Ziff, S. Digital storytelling from below: Revolutionary Athens through a kaleidoscope. Στο G. Souvlis and A. Karatzogianni (eds) (2024) Duty to Revolt: Transnational and Commemorative Aspects of Revolution (pp. 145-157). Bingley: Emerald.

Gazi, A. (2022). Reviving revolutionary Athens. The siege of the Acropolis by Kioutachis through the eyes of the unseen. In Ch. Koulouri (ed.) The foundation of the Greek state (pp. 65-74). Athens: Alexandria [in Greek].

Gazi A., Giannakis, T., Marmaras, I., Scoulidas, Y., Stoyannides, Y., Venieri, F., Ziff, S. (2022). Museum theatre in digital history projects. The case of RevAthens. International Conference Communicating the Past – Museum Theatre and Live Interpretation, IMTAL & Panteion University, Athens, Panteion University, 20 – 21 May 2022.

Gazi A., Giannakis, T., Marmaras, I., Scoulidas, Y., Stoyannides, Y., Venieri, F., Ziff, S. (2021). REVAthens: Bringing Athens of the Revolution to Life Through Museum Theatre Methodology and Digital Gamification Techniques. In M. Shehade, T. Stylianou-Lambert (eds). Emerging Technologies and the Digital Transformation of Museums and Heritage Sites. RISE IMET 2021. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1432. Springer, Cham.



Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation within the framework of the “Science and Society” / “200 years since the Greek Revolution” programme.

Hosting institution

Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

Scientific supervisor

Professor Andromache Gazi, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

Foteini Venieri, theatrοlogist-museologist, post-doc Panteion University
Thodoris Giannakis, visual artist, 3D artist
Yannis Scoulidas, computer programmer
Yannis Stoyannides, historian, assistant professor, University of West Attica
Ilias Marmaras, digital media artist/researcher
Stewart Ziff, digital media artist/researcher

Nikos Alexiou, actor/voice
Nikitas Anastopoulos, actor/voice
Stavros Kaperonis, assistant professor, Panteion University/Website design
Lefteris Katachanas, actor/voice and contribution to the scenario
Panayiotis Katsolis, actor/voice
Apostolos Koklas, sound recording and sound processing
Tonis Moser, translation
Dimitris Daskas, actor/voice
Agapi Papoutsaki, actress/voice

Stelios Patsias, actor/voice
Katerina Choli, actress/voice

Akron Studio-Massive Productions
Alexandros Tasoulis-Faladas, sound recording and sound processing
Vangelis Famas, sound recording and sound processing

April 2020 – December 2022
Andromache Gazi
Department of Communication, Media and Culture
| Panteion University |
136, Syngrou Avenue, 17671 Kallithea - Athens
Download the application
Before you download the application, please check that your device is in compliance with the requirements below.

Android devices
Minimum Android version: 11, Minimum RAM Memory 4GB, 8core Processor (4 CPU - 4 GPU), Best Android version: 12,13, RAM Memory 6GB
WINDOWS Computers
Windows 10 or 11, Minimum RAM Memory 4GB, At least 2GB GPU Memory, Multi-core Processor
MacOS Computers
MacOS 10.13 or newer, Intel or Apple Silicon Processors, Minimum RAM Memory 4GB, At least 2GB GPU Memory.
You can run the application
on the spot, around the Acropolis rock, or not.
In any case, start the tour from the CLEPSYDRA.

Evaluate the application

© 2023 REVAthens. Developed by Stavros Kaperonis

These are figures that did not exist but could have existed, created with the method of “educated guesses” based on historical sources.
A study of such primary sources as the memoirs of P. Skouzes and Makriyannis led to the compilation of a vocabulary of Greek words along with Turkish and Albanian ones, some of which were incorporated into the dialogues of the characters of Ottoman and Albanian descent, respectively.
To simulate the terrain, the surroundings and the ruins as they would look back then, a study was made of old maps, drawings, aquarelles, written accounts and daguerreotypes that date from the time before the start of the excavations.